Republic of Kazakhstan
Республика Казахстан (Russian), Қазақстан Республикасы (Kazakh), Republic of Kazakhstan (English)
Official languages: Kazakh (state), Russian (official).
Geography: located in Middle Asia fringed by the Caspian Sea, the Urals, Siberia and Central Asia. Westernmost provinces beyond river Emba extend into Europe. Borders Russia on the north and west, China on the east, Turkmenistan to the south.
Area: 2 724 900 sq km
Territorial division: 17 oblast and three cities administered by the central government (Almaty, Astana, Shymkent).
Population: 19 mio (2021)
Area code: +7
Currency: Kazakhstani tenge (KZT), 1 tenge = 100 tiyn.
Established on 30 August 1995 following national constitutional referendum. The Constitution established a bicameral national Parliament consisting of the Senate and the Mazhilis.
Mandate: Members are elected for six-year terms, 34 are elected by an electoral college of local legislators. Each oblast has two mandates in the senate. Half of the House is re-elected every three years. Fifteen are appointed by the President to ensure balanced ethnic representation or other national concern.
Established on 30 August 1995 following national constitutional referendum. The Constitution established a bicameral national Parliament with the Mazhilis as the lower chamber.
Mandate: MPs are elected for a term of four years. 98 of them are elected through general, equal, free, direct elections with personal and secret ballot on party lists. Nine are appointed by the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan. Eligibility is 25 years for citizens with with 10 years permanent residence record.